Hamengkubuwono IX or HB IX (12 April 1912 – 2 October 1988) was the first Governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the ninth Sultan of Yogyakarta and the second Vice President of Indonesia during the rule of Suharto.
Born as Raden Mas Dorodjatun in Sompilan, Ngasem, Yogyakarta to Gusti Pangeran Haryo (Prince) Puruboyo and Raden Ajeng Kustillah, when he was three years old he was named Crown Prince to the Yogyakarta Sultanate after his father ascended to the throne and became Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII.
Hamengkubuwono IX had a Western education. When he was four, he was sent away to live with a Dutch family. After completing his primary and secondary education in 1931, Hamengkubuwono IX left Indonesia to attend the Leiden University in the Netherlands. There Hamengkubuwono IX took Indonesian studies and economics. He returned to Indonesia in 1939.
Hamengkubuwono IX had been active with Scouts from the days of the Dutch colonial government and continued to look after the movement once Indonesia became independent. In 1968, Hamengkubuwono IX was elected Head of the national Scout movement. Hamengkubuwono IX was also awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, in 1973.
Hamengkubuwono IX died at the George Washington University Medical Center in the United States on 1 October 1988 and was buried at Imogiri. There is a special museum dedicated to him in the sultan's palace (kraton) in Yogyakarta. He was also given the title National Hero of Indonesia, a distinction for Indonesian patriots. He was replaced by his son, Raden Mas Herdjuno Darpito, who took the name Hamengkubuwono X.